Tidal Freshwater Marsh

These marshes exist beyond the influence of salt water, but still have tides. Many more species of plants are able to exist here than in the harsh environment of the salt marsh.
Arrow Arum
Arrow Arum
Scientific Name: Peltandra virginica
Look for large, fleshy leaves shaped like an arrow. The greenish flower head spadix is practically hidden by an enveloping,
leaf-like spathe.
Size: 1 to 2 ft. (30 to 60 cm) 
Scientific Name: Sagittaria latifolia
This is another marsh plant with arrow-shaped leaves. The flowers, which appear later in the season than those of arrow arum, have three white, rounded petals, and are borne in clusters of three. Arrowhead’s starchy rhizomes (“duck potatoes”) are relished by waterfowl and muskrats.  
Size: 1 to 4 ft. (30 to 120 cm) 
Scientific Name: Cephalanthus occidentalis
This shrub bears its small white flowers grouped in balls or “buttons.” Tolerant of wet conditions, buttonbush is common in
marshes and swamps and along the margins of ponds. It is related to gardenia, quinine, and coffee.  
Size: 3 to 10 ft. (90 to 300 cm) 
Scientific Name: Pontederia cordata
The spikes of purplish-blue flowers are distinctive. They resemble those of the garden hyacinth. Like a number of other marsh plants, pickerelweed has large, arrow-shaped leaves. Both leaves and flowers emerge above the water. 
Size: 1 to 4 ft. (30 to 120 cm)
Rice Cutgrass
Rice Cutgrass
Scientific Name: Leersia oryzoides
A true grass, this species is related to cordgrass and saltmeadow hay. Its leaves bear sharp little spines along their margins.
Size: to 4 ft. (120 cm)
Yellow Flag
Scientific Name: Iris pseudacorus This, the only common yellow iris, is not native to North America. Originally from Europe, it has escaped from cultivation and is now established in marshes throughout our area. 
Size: 1 to 3 ft. (30 to 90 cm)
Scientific Name: Typha angustifolia
Size: 2 to 5 ft. (60 to 150 cm)
Narrow-Leaved Cattail  
Scientific Name: Typha latifolia
Size: 3 to 9 ft. (90 to 270 cm) 
The cattail is unmistakable. Did you know that it’s also good to eat? Its young shoots and sprouts can be eaten either cooked or in salads, and flour can be made from its pollen and rootstocks.  Two species of cattail, the common (or broad-leaved) and the narrow-leaved, grow here. They can be told apart not just by the width of their leaves, but also by their height and flower heads. In the taller, common cattail, male flowers grow immediately above female ones; in shorter, narrow-leaved cattail, the sexes are separated by a distinct gap.
Sweet Flag
Scientific Name: Acorus calamus
Sweet flag gets its name from its pleasantly spicy aroma. In the past it was gathered to be spread on floors—its perfume released when it was crushed by people walking on it. This plant is fragrant right down to its roots, which were once used to make candy.
Size: 1 to 4 ft. ( 30 to 120 cm)
Lizards Tail
Lizard’s Tail
Scientific Name: Saururua cernuus
Lizard’s tail is named for its drooping head of tiny, fragrant, white flowers. Its large, dark green leaves are heart-shaped.
Size: 2 to 5 ft. (60 to 150 cm)